Exotic/ Zoo Medicine
Curated Research Library
CATEGORY : Exotic/ Zoo Medicine
Revealing the multifocal mechanisms affecting cross-talk between Clostridium perfringens pathogenesis and the host response is an urgent need in the poultry industry. Herein, the activity of Cannabis sativa-derived cannabidiol (CBD) and selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) in modulating the host response to Clostridium perfringens challenge was investigated in broiler chickens subjected to a mild infection model. The infected chickens exhibited no clinical manifestations, confirming the potential hazard of pathogen transmission to the food chain in the commercial sector. However, both CBD and Nano-Se affected the responses of chickens to C. perfringens challenge. The beneficial actions of both agents were manifested in the upregulated expression of genes determining gut barrier function. Both CBD and Nano-Se promoted shifts in gut bacterial enzyme activity to increased energy uptake in challenged chickens and upregulated potential collagenase activity. There was no opposite effect of CBD and Nano-Se in mediating the host response to challenge, whereas an additive effect was evidenced on the upregulation of gene determining gut integrity. Collectively, these findings indicate that understanding the action mechanisms of CBD and Nano-Se is of great interest for developing a preventive strategy for C. perfringens infection in broilers.
Forty-eight 19-wk-old Bovan White laying hens were fed 1 of 5 diets containing either hemp seed (HS) or hemp seed oil (HO). The level of HO was 4, 8, or 12%, whereas the level was 10 or 20% for the HS. A set of 8 birds fed wheat-, barley-, and corn oil-based diets served as the control. Performance was monitored over 12 wk. Average hen-day egg production was not affected upon feeding of either HS or HO diets. Egg weight was higher than that of the controls for hens consuming the 20% HS diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake was lower than that of the controls for birds consuming the 4% HO diet but similar across other treatments. Final BW were not affected by diet, with the exception of being lower than that of the controls (P < 0.05) in hens consuming the 12% HO diet. The total egg yolk n-3 fatty acid content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary α-linolenic acid provision with the HS- or HO-based diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed for docosahexaenoic acid levels in egg yolk in response to increasing dietary α-linolenic acid supply. The expression of hepatic fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2, key genes for the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, was significantly decreased (50-60% of controls; P < 0.05) as a result of feeding HS or HO diets. Based on the results from the current study, the inclusion of the hemp products HS or HO in the diets of laying hens up to a maximum level of 20 and 12%, respectively, does not adversely effect the performance of laying hens and leads to the enrichment of the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs.
This report describes clinical signs and plasma biochemical changes associated with significant cannabis consumption in three Green iguanas (Iguana iguana) which resulted in seizures, cardiovascular and digestive tract aberrations, elevated hepatic enzymes and bile acid concentrations for a number of weeks post recovery. One case required extensive antiseizuring therapy to recover. All Green iguanas eventually made a full recovery.
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