Curated Research Library
CATEGORY : General
Background: Beside others, neuroinhibitory and sedative effects of CBD were documented. Aim and Methods: The aim of the study was to assess the dose-related effects of CBD premedication on the course of isoflurane anesthesia. Wistar rats were pretreated with different doses of CBD 1 h before isoflurane anesthesia. In the pretreatment, animals were given CBD at doses of 100, 20, 10, or 2 mg kg-1. Before the fifth (control) anesthesia, the animals were given only mid-chain triglyceride oil, which served as a solvent in the CBD formulation. The induction time was determined, and on awakening, the time to appearance of the flexion reflex and the recovery from anesthesia were determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significantly shorter induction time if animals were pretreated with 20 mg kg-1 CBD. In addition, pretreatment with 100 mg kg-1 CBD resulted in a prolonged induction time, while on awakening, delayed appearance of reflexes and prolonged recovery from anesthesia compared to pretreatment with 20 mg kg-1 CBD were observed. Conclusions: The results indicate that the influence of CBD on the course of isoflurane anesthesia depends on the dose and can reduce the induction time. Although this study was performed in laboratory rats, in clinical practice, these data should be considered when CBD-treated patients undergo isoflurane anesthesia.
Products derived from Cannabis sativa L. have gained increased interest and popularity. As these products become common amongst the public, the health and potential therapeutic values associated with hemp have become a premier focus of research. While the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis products have been extensively highlighted in the literature, the antibacterial properties of cannabidiol (CBD) have not been explored in depth. This research serves to examine the antibacterial potential of CBD against Salmonella newington and S. typhimurium. In this study, we observed bacterial response to CBD exposure through biological assays, bacterial kinetics, and fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, comparative studies between CBD and ampicillin were conducted against S. typhimurium and S. newington to determine comparative efficacy. Furthermore, we observed potential resistance development of our Salmonella spp. against CBD treatment.
Introduction: The study was planned to investigate memory-enhancing, anti-inflammatory, and antiaging potential of cannabidiol (CBD) on vitamin D3 deficient diet (VDD)-induced rats. Materials and Methods: Cytochrome P-450 enzymes were analyzed by RT-PCR method and others biomarkers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: CYP2R1 and CYP27B1-mRNA were significantly increased by 39.29 and 38.37%, respectively, while; CYP24A1-mRNA was significantly reduced by 21.39% compared to VDD. Vitamin D3 receptor protein expression was significantly increased by 148.3%, 60.48%, and 142.03% in liver, kidney, and brain, respectively, compared to VDD group. Vitamin D3 metabolites and serotonin were significantly increased more than 60% and 100%, respectively, compared to VDD. Spatial memory (in terms of total distance, escape latency) and pain score were improved compared to VDD. Cytokines were significantly reduced than VDD. Besides, levels of superoxide dismutase (49.61%), glutathione peroxidase (178.87%), acetylcholine (25.40%), and klotho (145.57%) were significantly increased than VDD. Conclusions: Study findings supported that CBD interacts with CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and vitamin D receptors, resulting in increased vitamin D3 metabolites, which improved memory, pain tolerance, reduced inflammation, and aging through modulating antioxidative enzymes, cytokines, and neurotransmitters in VDD-induced rats.
The use of cannabis-based products for therapeutic purposes is a reality in the field of animal health. However, although cannabis is considered safe when appropriately used by human patients, cannabis-based products can pose a risk to companion animals such as dogs, depending on their composition or route of administration. Thus, this article discusses aspects of the safety and efficacy of different cannabis-based products in dogs’ treatment through an integrative review. The review was systematically performed in Medline (via Pubmed®) and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) databases, with period restriction (between 1990 and 2021). The qualified articles (n=19), which met the previously established inclusion criteria, were critically evaluated. Based on the literature review, it is possible to infer safety in the administration of cannabis-based products for the treatment of dogs, especially products rich in cannabidiol (CBD), free or with low concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol, under the conditions evaluated. In addition, CBD products potentially promote improved quality of life and reduce pain perception in animals affected by canine osteoarthritis. Finally, owing to the lack of large-scale and robust clinical research studies, the performance of clinical trials, considering the individual characteristics of each cannabis-based product (composition, concentration, nature of adjuvants, dosage form, route of administration), is strongly encouraged.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), was identified for the first time in late 2019 in China, resulting in a global pandemic of massive impact. Despite a fast development and implementation of vaccination strategies, and the scouting of several pharmacological treatments, alternative effective treatments are still needed. In this regard, cannabinoids represent a promising approach because they have been proven to exhibit several immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties in COVID-19 disease models and related pathological conditions. This mini-review aims at providing a practical brief overview of the potential applications of cannabinoids so far identified for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19, finally considering key aspects related to their technological and clinical implementation.
Cannabis extracts have been used for centuries, but its main active principle ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was identified about 50 years ago. Yet, it is only 25 years ago that the first endogenous ligand of the same receptors engaged by the cannabis agents was discovered. This “endocannabinoid (eCB)” was identified as N-arachidonoylethanolamine (or anandamide (AEA)), and was shown to have several receptors, metabolic enzymes and transporters that altogether drive its biological activity. Here I report on the latest advances about AEA metabolism, with the aim of focusing open questions still awaiting an answer for a deeper understanding of AEA activity, and for translating AEA-based drugs into novel therapeutics for human diseases.
Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is an oral disease. Cats with FCGS experience intense oral pain. Some cats remain refractory to current therapies based on dental extraction and adjuvant medical treatment; it is therefore necessary to investigate alternative therapeutic targets involved in inflammatory mechanisms and pain, namely the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The present study investigated the expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and 2 (CB2R), and cannabinoid-related receptors G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and serotonin 1a receptor (5-HT1aR), in the oral mucosa of healthy cats to determine whether there was altered expression and distribution in cats with FCGS.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is being investigated as a treatment for several medical disorders but there is uncertainty about its safety. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the adverse effects of CBD across all medical indications. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials lasting ≥7 days were included. Twelve trials contributed data from 803 participants to the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, CBD was associated with an increased likelihood of withdrawal for any reason (OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.38-4.96) or due to adverse events (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.04-6.80), any serious adverse event (OR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.18-4.48), serious adverse events related to abnormal liver function tests (OR 11.19, 95% CI: 2.09-60.02) or pneumonia (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 1.17-24.65), any adverse event (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-2.33), adverse events due to decreased appetite (OR 3.56, 95% CI: 1.94-6.53), diarrhoea (OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.46-4.67), somnolence (OR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.07-4.64) and sedation (OR 4.21, 95% CI: 1.18-15.01). Associations with abnormal liver function tests, somnolence, sedation and pneumonia were limited to childhood epilepsy studies, where CBD may have interacted with other medications such as clobazam and/or sodium valproate. After excluding studies in childhood epilepsy, the only adverse outcome associated with CBD treatment was diarrhoea (OR 5.03, 95% CI: 1.44-17.61). In summary, the available data from clinical trials suggest that CBD is well tolerated and has relatively few serious adverse effects, however interactions with other medications should be monitored carefully. Additional safety data from clinical trials outside of childhood epilepsy syndromes and from studies of over-the-counter CBD products are needed to assess whether the conclusions drawn from clinical trials can be applied more broadly.
Cannabitwinol (CBDD, 3), the second member of a new class of dimeric phytocannabinoids in which two units are connected by a methylene bridge, was isolated from a hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) industrial extract. The structural characterization of cannabitwinol, complicated by broadening of 1H NMR signals and lack of expected 2D NMR correlations at room temperature, was fully carried out in methanol-d4 at −30 °C. All the attempts to prepare CBDD by reaction of CBD with formaldehyde or its iminium analogue (Eschenmoser salt) failed, suggesting that this sterically congested dimer is the result of enzymatic reactions on the corresponding monomeric acids. Analysis of the cannabitwinol profile of transient receptor potential (TRP) modulation evidenced the impact of dimerization, revealing a selectivity for channels activated by a decrease of temperature (TRPM8 and TRPA1) and the lack of significant affinity for those activated by an increase of temperature (e.g., TRPV1). The putative binding modes of cannabitwinol with TRPA1 and TRPM8 were investigated in detail by a molecular docking study using the homology models of both channels.
Recent advances in cannabidiol (CBD) use in canines and felines for anxiety management, pain management, and anti-inflammatory effects were reviewed using a literature search conducted with the following keywords: CBD, anxiety, inflammation, pain, dogs, cats, and companion animals. For decades, research on CBD has been hindered due to the status of cannabis (C. sativa L.) as an illicit drug. Limited safety data show that CBD is well-tolerated in dogs, with insufficient information on the safety profile of CBD in cats. Upon oral supplementation of CBD, elevation in liver enzymes was observed for both dogs and cats, and pharmacokinetics of CBD are different in the two species. There is a significant gap in the literature on the therapeutic use of CBD in cats, with no feline data on anxiety, pain, and inflammation management. There is evidence that chronic osteoarthritic pain in dogs can be reduced by supplementation with CBD. Furthermore, experiments are required to better understand whether CBD has an influence on noise-induced fear and anxiolytic response. Preliminary evidence exists to support the analgesic properties of CBD in treating chronic canine osteoarthritis; however, there are inter- and intra-species differences in pharmacokinetics, tolerance, dosage, and safety of CBD. Therefore, to validate the anxiety management, pain management, and anti-inflammatory efficacy of CBD, it is essential to conduct systematic, randomized, and controlled trials. Further, the safety and efficacious dose of CBD in companion animals warrants investigation.
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