Curated Research Library
CATEGORY : Osteoarthritis
Background: Current arthritis treatments often have side-effects attributable to active compounds as well as route of administration. Cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates inflammation and pain without side-effects, but CBD is hydrophobic and has poor oral bioavailability. Topical drug application avoids gastrointestinal administration, first pass metabolism, providing more constant plasma levels. Methods: This study examined efficacy of transdermal CBD for reduction in inflammation and pain, assessing any adverse effects in a rat complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced monoarthritic knee joint model. CBD gels (0.6, 3.1, 6.2 or 62.3 mg/day) were applied for 4 consecutive days after arthritis induction. Joint circumference and immune cell invasion in histological sections were measured to indicate level of inflammation. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in response to noxious heat stimulation determined nociceptive sensitization, and exploratory behaviour ascertained animal’s activity level. Results: Measurement of plasma CBD concentration provided by transdermal absorption revealed linearity with 0.6-6.2 mg/day doses. Transdermal CBD gel significantly reduced joint swelling, limb posture scores as a rating of spontaneous pain, immune cell infiltration and thickening of the synovial membrane in a dose-dependent manner. PWL recovered to near baseline level. Immunohistochemical analysis of spinal cord (CGRP, OX42) and dorsal root ganglia (TNFα) revealed dose-dependent reductions of pro-inflammatory biomarkers. Results showed 6.2 and 62 mg/day were effective doses. Exploratory behaviour was not altered by CBD indicating limited effect on higher brain function. Conclusions: These data indicate that topical CBD application has therapeutic potential for relief of arthritis pain-related behaviours and inflammation without evident side-effects.
Endocannabinoids have analgesic/anti-inflammatory properties. The biology of endocannabinoids, their receptors, signalling mechanisms and role in the regulation of physiological processes have been extensively reviewed. This review focuses on the role of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide analogue of the endocannabinoid anandamide, in tissue protective mechanisms. PEA was first identified almost five decades ago in lipid extracts of various natural products, and its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects were established later. Evidence exists that PEA is synthesised during inflammation and tissue damage and a number of beneficial effects, including the relief of inflammation and pruritus, have been shown to be useful in the control of neurogenic and neuropathic pain. The postulated hypotheses as to the mode of action of PEA include a possible local autacoid-like mediator activity regulating mast-cell activity and putative activation of cannabinoids and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors via “entourage” effects. The large number of scientific investigations into the effects of PEA and PEA-related compounds has given rise to new therapeutic opportunities. In spite of the multitude of therapies currently employed to control inflammation, pain, pruritus and tissue damage, the possibility of using a natural compound, such as PEA to manipulate endogenous protective mechanisms may be considered a beneficial novel therapeutic strategy in veterinary medicine.
Cannabinoid ligands regulate bone mass, but skeletal effects of cannabis (marijuana and hashish) have not been reported. Bone fractures are highly prevalent, involving prolonged immobilization and discomfort. Here we report that the major non-psychoactive cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD), enhances the biomechanical properties of healing rat mid-femoral fractures. The maximal load and work-to-failure, but not the stiffness, of femurs from rats given a mixture of CBD and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 8 weeks were markedly increased by CBD. This effect is not shared by THC (the psychoactive component of cannabis), but THC potentiates the CBD stimulated work-to-failure at 6 weeks postfracture followed by attenuation of the CBD effect at 8 weeks. Using micro–computed tomography (μCT), the fracture callus size was transiently reduced by either CBD or THC 4 weeks after fracture but reached control level after 6 and 8 weeks. The callus material density was unaffected by CBD and/or THC. By contrast, CBD stimulated mRNA expression of Plod1 in primary osteoblast cultures, encoding an enzyme that catalyzes lysine hydroxylation, which is in turn involved in collagen crosslinking and stabilization. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy we confirmed the increase in collagen crosslink ratio by CBD, which is likely to contribute to the improved biomechanical properties of the fracture callus. Taken together, these data show that CBD leads to improvement in fracture healing and demonstrate the critical mechanical role of collagen crosslinking enzymes. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Background and Purpose Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA-A), the precursor of Δ9-THC, is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that shows PPARγ agonist activity. Here, we investigated the ability of Δ9-THCA-A to modulate the classic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and evaluated its anti-arthritis activity in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Approach Cannabinoid receptors binding and intrinsic activity, as well as their downstream signalling, were analysed in vitro and in silico. The anti-arthritis properties of Δ9-THCA-A were studied in human chondrocytes and in the murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Plasma disease biomarkers were identified by LC-MS/MS based on proteomic and elisa assays. Key Results Functional and docking analyses showed that Δ9-THCA-A can act as an orthosteric CB1 receptor agonist and also as a positive allosteric modulator in the presence of CP-55,940. Also, Δ9-THCA-A seemed to be an inverse agonist for CB2 receptors. In vivo, Δ9-THCA-A reduced arthritis in CIA mice, preventing the infiltration of inflammatory cells, synovium hyperplasia, and cartilage damage. Furthermore, Δ9-THCA-A inhibited expression of inflammatory and catabolic genes on knee joints. The anti-arthritic effect of Δ9-THCA-A was blocked by either SR141716 or T0070907. Analysis of plasma biomarkers, and determination of cytokines and anti-collagen antibodies confirmed that Δ9-THCA-A mediated its activity mainly through PPARγ and CB1 receptor pathways. Conclusion and Implications Δ9-THCA-A modulates CB1 receptors through the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. In addition, Δ9-THCA-A exerts anti-arthritis activity through CB1 receptors and PPARγ pathways, highlighting its potential for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral transmucosal (OTM) cannabidiol (CBD), in addition to a multimodal pharmacological treatment for chronic osteoarthritis-related pain in dogs. Twenty-one dogs were randomly divided into two groups: in group CBD (n = 9), OTM CBD (2 mg kg-1 every 12 h) was included in the therapeutic protocol (anti-inflammatory drug, gabapentin, amitriptyline), while in group C (n = 12), CBD was not administered. Dogs were evaluated by owners based on the Canine Brief Pain Inventory scoring system before treatment initiation (T0), and one (T1), two (T2), four (T3) and twelve (T4) weeks thereafter. Pain Severity Score was significantly lower in CBD than in C group at T1 (p = 0.0002), T2 (p = 0.0043) and T3 (p = 0.016). Pain Interference Score was significantly lower in CBD than in C group at T1 (p = 0.0002), T2 (p = 0.0007) and T4 (p = 0.004). Quality of Life Index was significantly higher in CBD group at T1 (p = 0.003). The addition of OTM CBD showed promising results. Further pharmacokinetics and long-term studies in larger populations are needed to encourage its inclusion into a multimodal pharmacological approach for canine osteoarthritis-related pain.
The objective of this study was to provide preliminary data describing the safety and effect of cannabidiol (CBD) for symptom relief of canine osteoarthritis-associated pain in a clinical setting using objective outcome measures. Twenty-three client-owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis of appendicular joints completed this prospective, double-blinded, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Baseline data were acquired for 4 wk, followed by random allocation to either placebo or CBD treatment for 6 wk, followed by 6 wk with the opposite treatment. Outcome measures included objective gait analysis, activity counts (via accelerometry) and clinical metrology instruments. There were no differences noted between groups at any time point for any of the recorded outcome measures. Adverse events associated with CBD administration included elevation in liver enzymes (n = 14) and vomiting (n = 2).
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