Curated Research Library
CATEGORY : Pain Management
Anandamide, an endocannabinoid, is degraded by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase which can be inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The present work was designed to study the peripheral interactions between anandamide and ibuprofen (a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor) in the rat formalin test. We first determined the ED50 for anandamide (0.018 μg ± 0.009), ibuprofen (0.18 μg ± 0.09), and their combination (0.006 μg ± 0.002). Drugs were given 15 min before a 2.5% formalin injection into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. Results were analyzed using isobolographic analysis. The antinociceptive interaction between anandamide and ibuprofen was synergistic.
The use of cannabidiol (CBD) for animal species is an area of growing interest, for example for its anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties, even though all of its biological effects are still not fully understood, especially in veterinary medicine. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties of CBD for the first time directly in canine inflammatory response. We used an ex vivo model of LPS-stimulated whole dog blood. We stimulated the whole blood from healthy dogs with LPS 100 ng/mL for 24 h in the presence or not of CBD 50 and 100 μg/mL. We observed a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-α production from the group treated with CBD, but non-altered IL-10 levels. Moreover, we also observed from the CBD-treated group a reduction in Nf-κB and COX-2 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating properties of CBD directly in dogs’ immune cells, using a canine ex vivo inflammatory model. The results obtained from these studies encourage further studies to better understand the possible therapeutic role of CBD in veterinary medicine.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly used as analgesic medication although the recent International Association for the Study of Pain Presidential Task Force on cannabis and cannabinoid analgesia found a lack of trials examining CBD for pain management. This trial examines CBD as add-on analgesic therapy in patients with hand osteoarthritis or psoriatic arthritis experiencing moderate pain intensity despite therapy. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, patients received synthetic CBD 20 to 30 mg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was pain intensity during the past 24 hours (0-100 mm); safety outcomes were percentage of patients experiencing adverse events and a characterization of serious adverse events. Explorative outcomes included change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index. One hundred thirty-six patients were randomized, of which 129 were included in the primary analysis. Between-group difference in pain intensity at 12 weeks was 0.23 mm (95% confidence interval -9.41 to 9.90; P = 0.96). Twenty-two percent patients receiving CBD and 21% receiving placebo experienced a reduction in pain intensity of more than 30 mm. We found neither clinically nor statistically significant effects of CBD for pain intensity in patients with hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis when compared with placebo. In addition, no statistically significant effects were found on sleep quality, depression, anxiety, or pain catastrophizing scores.
The brain mechanism of inflammatory pain is an understudied area of research, particularly concerning the descending pain modulatory system. The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a lysophosphatidylinositol-sensitive receptor that has also been involved in cannabinoid signaling. It is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a brainstem area and key element of the descending pain modulatory system. In this study, we used behavioral, stereotaxic injections, pharmacological tools, and two inflammatory pain models (formalin and carrageenan) to determine if GPR55 in the PAG plays a role in the pain associated with inflammation in rats. It was found that the blockade of GPR55 action in PAG can drive the descending pain modulatory system to mitigate inflammatory pain. These data show that GPR55 plays a role in the descending pain modulatory system in inflammatory pain.
A 14-year-old intact mixed breed dog (26 kg) was submitted for a novel cannabidiol (CBD) analgesic treatment. The dog was cachectic and had a testicular neoplasia, hip and elbow osteoarthritis and severe cervical pain. Analgesic treatment included canine osteoarthritic supplement, robencoxib and gabapentin. An additional liposomal CBD injectable formulation at 5 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously between the shoulder blades. The dog was monitored using an activity monitoring collar (PetPace), owner wellbeing questionnaire (Canine Brief Pain Inventory; CBPI), pain interactive visual analog scale (iVAS), blood work and CBD plasma concentrations. A week from the injection and up to 3 weeks afterwards the dog had improved CBPI and iVAS pain scores, and increased collar activity scores. CBD was quantified in plasma for 28 days. Due to disease progression, further difficulty to rise and walk, and relapse to pain after 3 weeks, the owners requested a second liposomal CBD injection, which was performed 4 weeks following the first injection using 3 mg/kg dose. Two days later, the dog was found dead in the yard under direct sun, while environmental temperature was 37°C. Major findings on necropsy revealed evidence of heat stroke and severe cervical disc protrusion with spinal hematoma, none related to liposomal CBD. In conclusion, subcutaneous liposomal CBD produced quantifiable CBD plasma concentrations for 28 days and may be an effective additional treatment as part of multimodal pain management in dogs.
Introduction: Some cannabinoids have been identified as anti-inflammatory agents; however, their potential therapeutic or prophylactic applications remain controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a timely and comprehensive insight into cannabinoid-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in preclinical in vivo studies. Methods and Materials: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus. Eligible studies where cannabinoids had been evaluated for their effect on inflammation in animal models were included in the analysis. Data were extracted from 26 of 4247 eligible full text articles, and risk of bias was assessed using the SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) tool. Studies examined cannabidiol (CBD; n=20); cannabigerol (CBG; n=1); delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; n=2); THC and CBD separately (n=1); and THC and CBD in combination (n=2). Results: Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and interferon gamma were the most commonly studied pro-inflammatory cytokines and their levels were consistently reduced after treatment with CBD, CBG, or CBD+THC, but not with THC alone. The association between cannabinoid-induced anti-inflammatory response and disease severity was examined. In 22 studies where CBD, CBG, or CBD in combination with THC were administered, a reduction in the levels of at least one inflammatory cytokine was observed, and in 24 studies, some improvements in disease or disability were apparent. THC alone did not reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (n=3), but resulted in improvements in neuropathic pain in one study. Conclusions: This review shows that CBD, CBG, and CBD+THC combination exert a predominantly anti-inflammatory effect in vivo, whereas THC alone does not reduce pro-inflammatory or increase anti-inflammatory cytokines. It is anticipated that this information could be used to inform human clinical trials of cannabinoids, focusing on CBD and CBG to reduce inflammation across a range of pathophysiological processes.
Over the last 2 decades, affirmative diagnoses of osteoarthritis (OA) in the United States have tripled due to increasing rates of obesity and an aging population. Hemp-derived cannabidiol (CBD) is the major nontetrahydrocannabinol component of cannabis and has been promoted as a potential treatment for a wide variety of disparate inflammatory conditions. Here, we evaluated CBD for its ability to modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in murine models of induced inflammation and further validated the ability of a liposomal formulation to increase bioavailability in mice and in humans. Subsequently, the therapeutic potential of both naked and liposomally encapsulated CBD was explored in a 4-week, randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded study in a spontaneous canine model of OA. In vitro and in mouse models, CBD significantly attenuated the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α while elevating levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10. In the veterinary study, CBD significantly decreased pain and increased mobility in a dose-dependent fashion among animals with an affirmative diagnosis of OA. Liposomal CBD (20 mg/day) was as effective as the highest dose of nonliposomal CBD (50 mg/day) in improving clinical outcomes. Hematocrit, comprehensive metabolic profile, and clinical chemistry indicated no significant detrimental impact of CBD administration over the 4-week analysis period. This study supports the safety and therapeutic potential of hemp-derived CBD for relieving arthritic pain and suggests follow-up investigations in humans are warranted.
Objective To determine the benefit of a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-rich cannabis oil on symptoms and quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for eight weeks to determine the benefit of a THC-rich cannabis oil (24.44 mg/mL of THC and 0.51 mg/mL of cannabidiol [CBD]) on symptoms and quality of life of 17 women with fibromyalgia, residents of a neighborhood with a low socioeconomic profile and a high incidence of violence in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. The initial dose was one drop (∼1.22 mg of THC and 0.02 mg of CBD) a day with subsequent increases according to symptoms. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was applied at pre- and postintervention moments and in five visits over eight weeks. Results There were no significant differences on baseline FIQ score between groups. However, after the intervention, the cannabis group presented a significant decrease in FIQ score in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.005) and in comparison with cannabis group baseline score. (P < 0.001). Analyzing isolated items on the FIQ, the cannabis group presented significant improvement on the “feel good,” “pain,” “do work,” and “fatigue” scores. The placebo group presented significant improvement on the “depression” score after intervention. There were no intolerable adverse effects. Conclusions Phytocannabinoids can be a low-cost and well-tolerated therapy to reduce symptoms and increase the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia. Future studies are still needed to assess long-term benefits, and studies with different varieties of cannabinoids associated with a washout period must be done to enhance our knowledge of cannabis action in this health condition.
We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that assessed the antinociceptive efficacy of cannabinoids, cannabis-based medicines, and endocannabinoid system modulators on pain-associated behavioural outcomes in animal models of pathological or injury-related persistent pain. In April 2019, we systematically searched 3 online databases and used crowd science and machine learning to identify studies for inclusion. We calculated a standardised mean difference effect size for each comparison and performed a random-effects meta-analysis. We assessed the impact of study design characteristics and reporting of mitigations to reduce the risk of bias. We meta-analysed 374 studies in which 171 interventions were assessed for antinociceptive efficacy in rodent models of pathological or injury-related pain. Most experiments were conducted in male animals (86%). Antinociceptive efficacy was most frequently measured by attenuation of hypersensitivity to evoked limb withdrawal. Selective cannabinoid type 1, cannabinoid type 2, nonselective cannabinoid receptor agonists (including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonists (predominantly palmitoylethanolamide) significantly attenuated pain-associated behaviours in a broad range of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors, monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors, and cannabidiol significantly attenuated pain-associated behaviours in neuropathic pain models but yielded mixed results in inflammatory pain models. The reporting of criteria to reduce the risk of bias was low; therefore, the studies have an unclear risk of bias. The value of future studies could be enhanced by improving the reporting of methodological criteria, the clinical relevance of the models, and behavioural assessments. Notwithstanding, the evidence supports the hypothesis of cannabinoid-induced analgesia.
Cannabis sativa L. contains cannabidiol (CBD), a compound that has many anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, 99.9% CBD powder was used to determine its in vitro efficacy as an anti-inflammatory agent. Heparinized blood was collected via jugular venipuncture from senior horses. PBMCs were isolated then incubated for 24 hours with increasing dilutions of CBD dissolved in DMSO. PBMCs were stimulated the last 4 hours of incubation with PMA/IO and Brefeldin A. A Vicell counter was used to evaluate viability after incubation. PBMCs were stained intracellularly for IFNγ and TNFα then analyzed via flow cytometry. RT-PCR was used to analyze samples for gene expression. Five equine-specific intron-spanning primers/probes used are: CB1, CB2, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-10, and Beta-glucuronidase. Data was analyzed using RM One-way ANOVA (significance P < .05). Viability of PBMCs with CBD was completed to determine cytotoxicity. The dilution of CBD that did not affect cell viability was 4 µg/mL (P<0.05). CBD at 4 µg/mL significantly reduced production of IFN-γ and TNF-α (P < .05). RT-PCR results for TNFα and IFNγ at 4 µg/mL showed a reduction compared with the positive control and IL-10 showed a similar reduction at 2 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL. RT-PCR gene expression results showed significance for 10 μg/mL CBD in CB1 and CB2. CBD at 4 µg/mL reduced in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from senior horses. This in vitro study supports further investigation of CBD to determine if it may be effective as an anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammation in the horse.
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